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新中国工业化的巨大成就及其基本经验


out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. T he ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information t o do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read faster a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation . Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objective of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on -making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to touch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere to people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg uard the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost concerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ngthe n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary -G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gover nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthorized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dhere to and further impr ove the

新中国工业化的巨大成就及其基本经验
(中国改革报 11 月 23 日)新中国对于工业化发展道路的探索, 是人类历史上的全新探索,具有划时代的意义。全面、科学地看待新 中国 60 年经济发展的伟大成就,需要用历史的眼光看待新中国的工 业化发展,从工业化的积累、形成阶段与发展阶段的结合来看待发展 路径,将新中国发展过程中的两个“三十年”结合起来,全面地认识 我国改革开放后的创新与发展。 新中国工业化道路取得的划时代成 就 工业化是中华民族摆脱贫穷落后面貌的必经之路。从历史上看,

现代化一般都是发端于工业化,以工业化作为其主要的推动力。早在 20 世纪 30 年代至 50 年代,毛泽东就深刻指出: “中国民族和人民要 彻底解放,必须实现国家工业化。 ”工业化是巩固社会主义制度的基 础,是提高人民生活水平的重要前提。立足于中国广大的自有资源与 市场基础,迅速地发展工业化,建立一个比较完整的工业体系,才能 保证国家发展战略的实现,巩固中国的社会主义经济基础。 新中

国 60 年的工业化发展道路,取得了划时代的巨大成就。工业化使我 国经济发生了历史性变化,经济规模空前增长。从历史的视角看,新 中国 60 年的经济增长,超过了中国以往的任何一个历史时期。有学 者根据国家统计局、世界银行和安格斯·麦迪森提供的数据及历史资 料进行推算后指出, 新中国建国以前的 500 年间 (公元 1500 年至 1949 年) ,我国国内生产总值年均增长速度增长不到 1%,甚至是负增长, 大大低于世界平均增长速度,更低于世界发达国家的增长速度,导致 在世界经济总量中所占比重下降到 4.4%。而建国后的 60 年,我国国
f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a ccounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and i nformati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h catching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around c onnecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagement to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Par ty Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外 Streamlining is to contr ol the number of messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a uthorities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to im pr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy program cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsur e t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral C onference and entertai nment servi ces , focus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human-ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane at mos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office System. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment f ocus on vital se ctors of se curity manageme nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chni ques a s a mea ns of a dministration a ccording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te chnol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read fast er a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objectiv e of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on -making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to touch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere t o people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg uard the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost c oncerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ng the n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gov er nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthorized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dhere to and further impr ove the

内生产总值年平均增长 11.5%,远远高于世界平均 3%的水平,使我 国经济总量重新跃居世界第 3 位。这一成绩的取得,与我国社会主义 制度建立后加快工业化进程是分不开的。据统计,建国初期在国内生 产总值中,工业仅占 12.6%,农业手工业占 80%多,而经过 60 年的 发展,我国 2007 年工业占 GDP 比重已达到 43%。工业的迅速发展, 对我国改变生产力落后面貌起到了重要作用。 工业化使我国建立

了比较完整的工业体系,技术装备水平不断提高。新中国成立之始, 我国工业基础薄弱,原材料工业和能源工业、交通设备制造业、机械 制造业、电子工业、石油化学工业等技术密集型行业,在当时的中国 几乎都是空白。 经过 60 年的发展, 我国建立了比较完整的工业体系。 目前我国工业产品的产量居世界第一位的已有 210 种(如粗钢、煤、 水泥等) ,主要产品产量位次不断前移,仅机电产品出口居世界第一 位的就有近 40 种,出口值中工业制成品的比重上升到 2014 年度细 分行业报告汇集 制造行业报告 互联网行业报告 农林牧渔行业报告 95%。我国还自主开发了大型船用曲轴、大型钢铁企业成套设备、高 性能数控机床、程控交换机、大型计算机、载人航天、J10 飞机等高 新技术产品,提升了我国工业产品的竞争力。 工业化进程使我国

实现了由农业大国向农业工业国的转变。建国 60 年的历史,是我国 从主要的农业国向工业农业国转变的历史。 我国的农村人口从建国初 期占有人口的 90%以上,下降到现在的 55%。从劳动力就业情况看, 建国初期,工业劳动力仅占 6.7%,农业劳动力占 93.7%,而目前 7.6 亿劳动力人口中则有 4 亿多在城镇, 包括乡村的乡镇企业和私营企业。

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a cc ounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h catching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagem ent to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a uthorities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy progra m cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsur e t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , focus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Sy stem. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manageme nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a cc ording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te chnol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read faster a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objective of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on-making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to t ouch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere to people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg ua rd the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost concerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ngthe n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gover nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthor ized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dh ere to and further impr ove the

人口从农业向工业的转移速度超过了历史上的任何一个时期。 总人口 结构与就业人口结构的转变, 改变了中国传统的社会结构和经济结构, 推动了社会文明和进步, 带动了消费结构的改变和人民生活水平的提 高。 改革开放前后 60 年工业化发展的成功探索 工业化过程是个

持续的历史发展过程,工业化积累和工业化发展在不同的历史时期, 其地位和作用也不相同。分析我国工业化的伟大成就,需要防止片面 的、割裂历史的倾向,改革开放前后 60 年的工业化发展是个整体, 前期为后期发展奠定了基础, 后期是在前期的基础上实现了更加快速 的发展。 对建国后我国工业化积累时期的评价,笔者认为可以这

样概括:一是不能脱离当时我国工业上“一穷二白”的历史背景,更 不能忽视社会制度的巨大促进作用; 二是这一时期奠定了改革开放的 物质基础;三是我国探索出了社会主义工业化积累的新模式,减小了 工业化过程中的社会成本。这一创造性的工业化积累模式,既确保了 农民在工业化进程中有可靠的凭借和保障, 又避免了大量失地农民滞 留 于 大 城市 的严重 社 会 问题 ,减少 了 工 业化 过程中 的 不 安定 因 素。 改革开放后的 30 年,是我国工业化发展再上一个台阶的历史

阶段。 通过改革和开放, 我国工业经济快速发展, 经济实力空前增强, 工业结构发生深刻变化, 完成了由工业化初期向工业化中期的历史性 跨越。主要表现在: (一)能源、原材料工业突破了长期发展的

“瓶颈” 。 截至 2007 年, 我国全年发电量已高达 32, 816 亿千瓦小时, 是 1978 年发电量的 11.8 倍;原煤产量达 25.3 亿吨,比 1978 年增长 3.1 倍;钢产量达到 4.89 亿吨,比 1978 年增长 14.4 倍。能源、原材

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a ccounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h cat ching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagement to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a ut horities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy program cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsure t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , f ocus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Syst em. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manage me nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a ccording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te ch nol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read fast er a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objectiv e of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on -making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to touch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere t o people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg uard the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost c oncerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ng the n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gov er nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthorized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dhere to and further impr ove the

料工业的快速发展,为下游工业企业拓宽了发展空间。

(二)工

业的内部产业结构不断优化。在工业经济规模不断增长的同时,工业 内部结构也得到了优化。高新技术产业获得了较快的发展,2007 年 高技术制造业增加值达 11,786.8 亿元,占全部规模以上工业增加值 的 10.1%,目前我国高技术制造业规模位居世界第二,改变了改革开 放前制造业技术水平低下的局面。 (三)对外开放加速了中国的

工业化进程。工业领域的外商投资企业迅速增长,对中国经济总量的 贡献也日益加大。外商投资企业的进入,客观上起到了推动产业结构 升级、带动工业技术进步的作用。 (四)市场不断开放,消费结

构不断升级,居民生活质量不断提高。居民的消费结构遵循吃、穿、 用、住、行的顺序不断升级和转变,电子产品、房地产、汽车等产业 成为新的高增长产业。 从近 30 年的工业化进程看,中国工业化成

绩的取得,主要经验在于立足于市场化改革和对外开放,强调了结构 调整和技术创新的作用。这一经验表明:在中国推进工业化、现代化 的过程中,需要以动态的视角,根据生产力发展的要求和改善人民生 活水平的需要,不断探索新的历史时期的工业化发展模式。 继续坚 定不移地推进工业现代化 当前,需要清醒地看到,中国工业现代

化的进程还没有完成。需要根据形势和现实的需要,科学总结历史经 验教训,推动我国工业现代化的进程。 第一,注重城乡共同发展, 工业化和城市化相互促进。要客观地看到,新中国通过集中和动员资 源,长期极度地压制城乡消费特别是农村的消费,以实现高积累和工 业建设,使农村和农业相对被排斥在工业化进程之外,制约了工业化

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a cc ounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h catching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagem ent to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a uthorities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy progra m cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsur e t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , focus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Sy stem. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manageme nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a cc ording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te chnol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read faster a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objective of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on-making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to t ouch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere to people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg ua rd the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost concerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ngthe n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gover nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthor ized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dh ere to and further impr ove the

对农业现代化的反哺和拉动作用的发挥,加大了工业化发展的代价。 在新的历史时期,工业化需要和城镇化结合起来,在人才、资金、信 息和技术上形成共享,避免出现工业化过程中的“贫困陷阱” 。 第

二,要注重轻重工业逐步协调增长。新时期的工业化,还是要以提高 人民生活为目的,形成轻重工业的互动发展机制,通过重工业发展加 强轻工业所需的工业原料和机械设备的生产和供应, 通过轻工业产品 的市场开拓,增加对重工业产品的需求。 第三、重视工业发展的

质量,注重技术进步,避免能源和资源浪费。从我国工业增长的拉动 因素看,科技进步的成份相对偏低,经济增长仍以消耗资源和能源为 主,这使我国工业化发展付出了过量消耗资源与牺牲环境的代价。据 统计,我国能源综合利用率为 32%左右,比发达国家先进水平低 10% 以上。每万元国民生产总值能耗比发达国家高 4 倍多,万元 GDP 的 耗水量比国际水平高 5 倍,万元 GDP 的总能耗是世界平均水平的 3 倍。 污染物排放总量也长期居高不下, 远远超过环境自净能力。 因此, 在需要大量消耗自然资源的工业产业领域, 不能盲目照搬工业发达国 家过去的发展道路,而应探索在节约资源、依靠科技进步和保护环境 的基础上实现工业增长。 第四,重视解决就业问题,缓解工业化

过程中资本对劳动力的排斥压力。 工业化过程中由劳动密集型向资本 密集型的转变,会导致就业岗位总量绝对少于劳动总量;而效率普遍 较高的新兴产业,对过剩劳动力的有效需求往往严重不足。据测算, 我国现在的可耕土地仅占世界总量的 7%, 按工业化国家 5%农业人口 的标准,我国在今后的 30 年里将有约 4 亿多劳动力要被农业资本的

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a ccounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h cat ching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagement to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a ut horities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy program cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsure t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , f ocus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Syst em. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manage me nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a ccording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te ch nol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read fast er a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objectiv e of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on -making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to touch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere t o people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg uard the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost c oncerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ng the n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gov er nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthorized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dhere to and further impr ove the

积累所取代,有约 7 亿人口需要离开农业而转入其他产业。这种由工 业资本积累产生的农业过剩人口,如不能及时找到就业岗位,将会引 发严重的社会问题。因此,在工业化过程中,需要高度重视解决就业 问题,确保经济发展过程中社会的稳定和和谐。 (作者单位:首都师 范大学政法学院) 中国工业化进程 ? 19 世纪 60-90 年代,封建地 主阶级洋务派掀起“师夷长技”的洋务运动,引进了西方先进的科学 技术, 创办了中国第一批近代工业, 为中国近代企业积累了生产经验, 培养了技术力量,客观上促进了中国民族资本主义的产生和发展,开 辟了中国近代化的道路。 ? 1898 年,戊戌变法引进西方先进技术, 鼓励私人兴办工矿企业。 ? 清末状元张謇提出了“实业救国”的口 号,并身体力行,创办大生纱厂等一系列企业。 ? 第一次世界大战 期间,帝国主义国家忙于战争,暂时放松了对中国经济的掠夺,中国 民族工业得 到了一个发展机会,进入了“黄金时代” ? 一战后,帝 国主义经济势力卷土重来,特别是日本帝国主义的侵略,使民族工业 再度受挫。 ? 抗战胜利后,由于国民党发动内战和官僚资本主义的压 迫,民族工业也没能得到很好的恢复。 ? 中国近代民族工业发展的 特点: ? 1、 总体比较落后 ? 2、 以轻工业为主, 几乎没有重工业。 ? 3、 地区发展不平衡,主要集中在沿江沿海大城市。 ? 4、发展短暂且艰 难曲折。 ? 中国近代民族工业落后的原因: ? 1、中国是传统的农

业国家, 自古以来, 重农业而轻工商。 ? 2、 长年战争的严重破坏。 ? 3、 受帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义三座大山的压迫。 一个五年计划(1953--1957) ? 背景: ?第

? 1、帝国主义长期掠夺和国

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a cc ounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h catching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagem ent to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a uthorities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy progra m cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsur e t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , focus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Sy stem. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manageme nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a cc ording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te chnol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read faster a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objective of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on-making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to t ouch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere to people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg ua rd the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost concerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ngthe n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gover nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthor ized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dh ere to and further impr ove the

民政府的搜刮以及多年战争的破坏,在全国解放前夕,国民党统治区 的 经济已经濒于崩溃。 ? 2、新中国建立以后,经过三年的经济恢 复,国民经济得到根本好转,工业生产已经超过历史最高 水平,但 是由于帝国主义的经济封锁,我国仍是一个落后的农业国,工业水平 很低,工业基础薄弱,而且门类不全远远落后于发达国家。 ? 目 的: ? 为了有计划的进行社会主义建设,发展国民经济,实现工业 化。 ? 基本任务: ? 集中主要力量发展重工业。相应地发展交通运 输业、轻工业、农业和商业。相应地培养建设人才。 ? 成就: ? 1、 工业:鞍钢、沈阳机械、长春一汽、第一个飞机制造厂、东北工业基 地形成等。2、交通运输: 武汉长江大桥、川藏、青藏、新藏公路的 修建。 ? 特点: ? 1、优先发展重工业 2、发展生产力与变革生产 关系并举 3、主要分布在东北地区 ? 影响: ? 使我国改变了工业落 后的面貌,向社会主义工业化迈进。 曲折发展 ? 1956

年中共八大明确指出:当前党和人民主要的任务是,集中力量发展社 会生产力,实现国家工 业化,逐步满足人民日益增长的物质和文化 需要。社会主义建设蓬勃开展,成就显著。 ? 但中共八大制定的正 确方针并没有得到坚持,1958 年党中央提出了“鼓足干劲,力争上 游,多快 好省地建设社会主义”的总路线,出现了“大跃进” 、 “人 民公社化”的左倾错误,严重影响了工业化进程。 ? 1961 年春,党 和政府全面调整国民经济,恢复发展生产,取自明显成效。 (1、大庆 油田建成,结 束了靠“洋油“的时代;2、新兴工业,如电子、航天、 原子能工业从无到有。 ) 社会主义建设新时期 ? 1、1978

f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a ccounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h cat ching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagement to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a ut horities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy program cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsure t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , f ocus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Syst em. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manage me nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a ccording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te ch nol ogy devel opment

out city created, a nd care masse s life, focus work, i n-dept h investigati on, more out boutique masterpie ce, makes we of research res ults more to i nto le d of de cisi on visi on, m ore to in national s ome has effect of news paper S hang published, for a dvance work, a nd publicity chang de play due of role. Third, informati on s ubmitted t o be pragmati c. Quick a nd timel y. The ancients said: for the time system; statement back for the time bei ng, nothing . Therefore , the s ubmis sion of information to do "four", that is, find the probl em faster, edit orial writing , send and read fast er a pproval a nd fee dba ck to implement quickl y. To be tr ue and accurate. True mainly reflect the full pict ure of event s, one is one, tw o, this i s the life of the i nformation. Accuracy i s primarily qualitative and quantitative questi ons , quantitative objectiv e of publicQualitative logi c. To be relia ble a nd useful. We submit inform ation to have access t o de cisi on -making, to g uide and promote t he work a nd solve practical problems. Mixe d cum. On the negative i nformation a nd emerge ncy i nformation, ra pid e scalati on i n strict a ccorda nce with the procedures, firm, news pape r, ne wspapers , never late, fail to re port, false claim and skimming. Investee 2. s upervi sion and insist on, around and prote cting t heir interest s to touch the trut h, se e k practical re sults . Adhere t o people -orie nted, t he most important thi ng is to re alize, s afeguard a nd develop the fundame ntal interest s of the overw helming majorit y of the people. We carry out ins pe ction, so m ust go deep among t he masse s, go dee p into t he realities , always pay atte ntion t o the people's liveli hood, t o grasp t he publi c se ntiment, a nd ear nestly safeg uard the be nefit, addr essi ng the mas ses are m ost c oncerne d about a nd refle cting the strong est iss ues, efforts to solve t he pr obl em of de cisions implemente d and not implemente d. One i s to stick t o pri nci ples. Rig ht of ins pecti on is one of the most im portant pow ers of the Office, s hould not only dare to use, but als o with cauti on. So-calle d dared to use, i s to hold a number of important i ssues, bold supervisi on over supervisi on, track i ns pecti on, problems are not solv ed do not pas s, the blame does not hold did not miss, diss atisfaction of the mas ses did not miss, t he real right of s upervi sion aut hority, with the be nefits. Call wit h ca uti on, is supervisi ng de partments s hould stre ng the n the consci ousne ss of aut horiz ed stri ctly accordi ng to pr oce dure, preventi ng the s upe rvision and exces sive to preve nt adding burden to gras s-roots. To thi s end, the supervisi on De partment of the Party Committee of supe rvision must be under city and County party Committee Secretary-G eneral (Office). Se cond, we shoul d focus on. Is t he Gov ernor, those relate d to the gl obalEve nt, Gover nor t he protra cted diff icult, strong Gover nor duri ng emergency urgent. Not havi ng special departments in charge of the Ge neral Gov er nor, under t he normal procedur e can do g ood thing s not Governor, not a uthorized by County lea ders, not the Gover nor. Thir d is to s olve the problem. The pur pose of s upervi sion, to res olve the probl em. To a dhere to and further impr ove the

年,十一届三中全会提出工作重心转移到经济建设上来,实行改革开 放, 实现了伟大历史 转折, 进入社会主义现代化建设新时期。 ? 2、 从农村到城市开始进行经济体制改革,经济建设取得巨大成就,建立 起独立的现代工业体系。 ? 3、20 世纪 90 年代后,提出建立社会主 义 标。 ? 市 场 经 济 体 制 目

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f eelings survey, by l ooki ng up publi c se ntiments to find pr oblem s. Pr oblems will increase it s spe cial s upervision, s et up a cc ounts, hold on t o it. We s hould cons cienti ously im plement t he lea ding contra cting matters, se cure d, ha d an answ er to everythi ng, then s ettles rate of 100% . Have an im pact on s ome of the outsta ndi ng iss ues, supervisi on departme nts and informati on compone nts toget her, play the s upervisory r ole of the new s media to promote problem solvi ng. I nvestee 3 . insi st on a daily run, around the practi ce of trut h catching efficie ncy, focus s pe cification. To give full play t o the party Office around connecti ng, coor dinati ng interna l and external features , contact, rally at all leve ls, to motivate every a spe ct, a dhere to t he trut h, strengt heni ng standardi zed ma nagem ent to a chieve cohere nt, efficient a nd effective functioning of the dai ly work of the Party Committee. Is pr ocessing me ssages shoul d strive to streamli ne, sta ndardize and quality. 时 改 修 好 做 位 单 装 合 配 护 围 常 ,日 理 清 的 物 杂 及 圾 垃 上 闭 封 间 层 行 进 板 跳 铺 网 全 安 挂 悬 , 设 搭 架 手 脚 外

Streamlining is to contr ol the number of

messages, compre ss mes sages, re ducing procedur es, impr ove message handling efficie ncy. Specificati ons , is to stri ctly enforce the ba n is sue d by the Communist party a uthorities in docume nt ha ndli ng regulations a nd provincial a nd munici pal regulati ons, cons cie ntiously strengt hen a nd impr ove communications manageme nt to ensure that party docume nts or derly. High qualit y, is to impr ove the quality of message pr oce ssi ng, it is ne ce ssary to a ccurately implementi ng the inte ntion of the Party Committee, cle arance, good communi cations, poli cy progra m cl ose d, e nsuri ng that ther e is no error. Second meeting scheduled t o ens ure thorough, safe a nd efficie nt. Any arrangeme nts for the meeti ngs and event s, carefully arra nged, item -by -item interface impl emented, sure . To vig orously streamline meeti ngs, a ctivities, number of pres sure re duction, scale to e nsur e t hat leadershi p emer ged from the Ge neral Conference and entertai nment servi ces , focus on big thi ngs, matters. T hird, re cepti on s ervice s should lay stress on huma ne, personal, cult ural and human. Recepti on and work directly w ith people, re cepti on service s dire ctly affecting t he Office of party Committee T he image of the region. At the same time stre ngthe ning t he constr ucti on of library, improve t he re cepti on conditi ons, more human -ori ented, pers onal, cultural w ork int o the re ce ption, a little more huma n needs, a little more huma n car e more humane atmos phere, and consta ntly improve t he s ervice, improve t he quality of service . Mea nwhile, to f urther pay special atte ntion to the daily w ork of t he ot her Office Sy stem. Confidential work re sponsi bility system for le adi ng ca dres to implement security as a leader, to improve t he confidentiality of clas sified personnel, es pe cially lea ding cadre s, stre ngthening party and Gover nment focus on vital se ctors of se curity manageme nt, to a dvance privacy management standar dization, moderni zation of se curity te chniques a s a mea ns of a dministration a cc ording t o law a nd security enforceme nt, ens ure the safety of the party and State secret s. Confide ntial work to meet t he dema nds of new te chnol ogy devel opment



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